Dizziness can be the main, sometimes the only, disorder that causes patients to see a doctor. More often it is just one of the less important symptoms of the disease. The doctor considers dizziness only those cases when the patient feels and experiences that his environment and objects revolve around him or he turns around with regard to the environment. In addition to the subjective feeling, "real dizziness" is accompanied by an external sign: the flickering of the eyes in one rhythm when looking at one point.

Dizziness occurs due to too strong stimuli or damage to those parts of the body that are responsible for maintaining balance. The apparatus responsible for feeling the body in space is located in three semicircular canals in the inner ear that lie perpendicular to each other. There is fluid and sensory cells in the ducts. By changing the position of the body, the fluid inside the canal is triggered, so this movement stimulates the sensory cells, which transmit these stimuli via the auditory nerve to the brain (where a person actually gets a sense of the position of his body in space). The balance system is connected by numerous neural connections to the muscles of the head, neck, torso, and limbs, which react reflexively, unconsciously, to maintain the balance of the body. The balance center is particularly well connected to the autonomic nervous system. Due to the irritation of these nerves, dizziness is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sweating, pale skin, fear.

Most of all dizziness is caused by fluid irritation in the semicircular canals of the inner ear. Dizziness occurs in some diseases of the heart, blood and blood vessels, regularly with anemia, increased or decreased blood pressure, very fast or very slow heart rate, arteriosclerosis, then diseases of the digestive organs: stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder. Dizziness is also psychogenic, occurs on a "nerve basis" and occurs in people with "weak nerves" as one of the symptoms of neurosis, then in people who feel fear of confined space, of rotation and height. More sensitive people suffer from height dizziness; women during menstruation, during pregnancy, during menopause.

Dizziness accompanies brain diseases: tumors, bleeding, purulent foci, and may be an introduction to an epileptic seizure. Infectious diseases, nervous diseases, allergies, ear infections can also cause dizziness. Head and ear injuries are regularly accompanied by dizziness, which can last for months. Any prolonged dizziness requires a medical examination and its severity is not important. Often minor but recurrent dizziness can be more dangerous than an attack with vomiting. In order to determine the cause of long-term dizziness, numerous examinations by specialists are needed: a doctor for nervous diseases, for eye diseases, for diseases of the ear, throat and nose, an examination by a radiologist, an internist, a laboratory examination.

There are people, especially the elderly, who complain of dizziness when they get out of bed. It is known that blood, like any fluid, flows downward due to gravity. When standing, blood enters the brain thanks to the blood pressure in the blood vessels that pushes the blood upwards. When there is a drop in blood pressure, it is first felt by the brain, and then dizziness, fainting and a fall occur. After a fall, lying down blood comes to the brain more easily, so such a person quickly comes to consciousness. During sleep, all life functions are slowed down, the heart works slower, blood pressure is lower. If a person gets up abruptly in the morning, he suddenly changes body position and may get dizzy and even lose consciousness. The body cannot suddenly raise blood pressure that would be sufficient to fully supply the brain. This causes dizziness. That's why you shouldn't jump out of bed abruptly. Sudden jumping is not a sign of youth, but of carelessness. Before getting up, you should stretch a little in bed, and less than one minute is enough for that.

Diver's dizziness is very dangerous and is often the first symptom of severe disorders that endanger his life. Dizziness can be a sign of a lack of oxygen in the blood and an increase in carbon dioxide. Dizziness of a diver using compressed oxygen can be a sign of oxygen poisoning. Dizziness can also occur from the transition from warm to colder layers of water, and vice versa.