Sudden loss of consciousness is the most shocking sign of illness. For the patient's environment, fainting is always an alarming symptom that regularly causes strong excitement and panic. The dramatic picture will be more pronounced the more abrupt the loss of consciousness, especially if it appears as a thunderbolt from the clear sky to young and until then completely healthy people. Unconsciousness is not always a condition that endangers health or life. Short-term loss of consciousness is a common and harmless phenomenon, mostly caused by transient circulatory disorders in the brain. But the loss of consciousness can be long-lasting and profound. Loss of consciousness that lasts for a long time and the patient cannot wake up with any stimuli is called coma. The most dangerous condition occurs when the loss of consciousness is due to cardiac and respiratory arrest.

Loss of consciousness due to cessation of basic life functions, ie heart and respiratory function, can occur suddenly in various circumstances, eg due to electric shock, drowning, suffocation, poisoning, head injuries. In such cases, panic and ignorance make it impossible to purposefully provide help with resuscitation methods. Loss of consciousness regularly precedes death. Loss of consciousness and death are often the expected and inevitable end of severe and incurable diseases. Unconsciousness occurs only when a disorder occurs in the center of consciousness in the brain. The causes that lead to such disorders are many and varied. The most common disorder is oxygen supply to brain cells. Oxygen plays an important role in cell life because the required amount of energy from food is obtained only by the action of oxygen.

A coma is a fainting that lasts for a long time and from which we cannot wake the patient. Coma is a condition of the body that occurs with many internal diseases, infectious diseases, poisoning and severe head injuries. Coma is also a condition of the body that regularly precedes death. Coma is the last sign, the final end of all diseases. The most common are coma caused by changes in the brain, the so-called. cerebral or cerebral coma. The most common cause of stroke is stroke (apoplexy). A stroke is caused by the rupture of blood vessels in the brain leading to bleeding. Stroke can also be caused by a blockage in a blood vessel in the brain (embolism). Due to bleeding into the brain, loss of consciousness occurs suddenly, brutally, often with deprivation of one half of the body. Uncontrolled urination is a regular occurrence, and breathing is deep and slow. Brain injuries are the cause of cerebral coma. Deep loss of consciousness, which lasts for a long time, is the result of brain damage. Other accompanying signs depend on that part of the brain that is damaged.

Today, comatose states are becoming more common due to the action of various poisons, and one of the most common is carbon monoxide poisoning. Mortality from carbon monoxide is higher than from all other toxins combined. After the onset of nausea, headache, vomiting and difficulty moving, there is a loss of consciousness. The severity of poisoning depends not only on the amount of gas in the atmosphere being inhaled, but also on the time the body is exposed to the poison. Thus, even very small concentrations of gas will cause severe poisoning and irreparable consequences, if the person has been exposed to the poison for a long time. Taking larger amounts of sleeping pills and calming the nerves causes coma. Today, there are hundreds of different preparations that can be taken by mistake or intentionally for suicidal intent. Medicines must be kept out of the reach of children and the mentally retarded. Young people reach for pills to draw attention to themselves, mostly because of conflicts with parents, unfulfilled desires, marital quarrels, or school failure. An incorrectly measured dose can have fatal consequences.

Many internal diseases can lead to prolonged loss of consciousness. Diabetics fall into a diabetic coma due to the accumulation of harmful substances. Harmful substances are caused by disturbed metabolism: acetone, acids, etc. You can smell acetone or rotten fruit, the skin is dry, breathing is strong and deep. It can also occur due to a sudden decrease in blood sugar. It is a hypoglycemic coma, loss of consciousness preceded by sweating, weakness, hunger, headache, accompanied by body cramps. The cause is an overdose of insulin or starvation with regular insulin intake. Prolonged lack of blood sugar can lead to more severe brain damage. Blood sugar levels are also reduced in many other diseases, such as liver, pancreatic tumors, strenuous physical exertion, alcohol poisoning, especially in young children. By giving sugar directly into the blood, the patient returns to full consciousness within a few seconds from a deep coma.

The comatose picture depends on the cause of the coma and the place where the brain is severely damaged. There is such brain damage when the patient is completely immobile, cannot be brought to consciousness by any procedures, but has his eyes open. It is damage to the cerebral cortex, the most developed and sensitive part of the brain. The eyes are open, wandering aimlessly, possibly only reacting to a rougher stimulus with a pointless movement. There are also such brain injuries when the patient follows objects that move or directs the eyes towards the sound source. Such patients cannot swallow or control bowel movements. They feed by giving food directly into the blood or by means of a rubber tube directly into the stomach. Such brain damage occurs because the brain has been without oxygen for too long, but not long enough for death to occur. Patients can sometimes live for ten years or more.