There are three types of blood vessels in the human body: arteries, capillaries and veins. The arteries carry blood from the heart to the periphery of the body and branch into smaller and smaller branches. The smallest blood vessels formed by the movement of arteries are called blood capillaries. In the capillaries, the blood provides the cells with the necessary food and oxygen, and takes over the waste products of metabolism. By reconnecting the tiny capillaries, larger blood vessels form that carry blood back to the heart, called veins. Veins are much weaker than arteries. Their wall is not as firm and elastic, which is understandable given that the artery wall can withstand much higher blood pressure than the vein wall. There are differences in the interior as well. Inside the veins, there are valves that are so built and placed that blood can only flow to the heart, i.e., the valves prevent the blood from returning in the opposite direction to the capillaries. The arteries do not have valves because the return of blood is impossible due to the high pressure that the heart creates by its work. Similarly, it is not possible to return water in water pipes as long as the pumps in the pumping stations are running.

Blood pressure in the veins is low. Any increase in pressure in one part of the vein directs the blood backwards, which the valves under normal conditions prevent. Dilation occurs when blood pressure in the veins increases due to pressure from the outside or blockage from the inside. If the flow of blood through the vein is blocked, the blood is injected through "auxiliary veins" into other veins. The rush of blood in these veins causes an increase in blood pressure and the veins dilate. Numerous superficial veins are located under the skin on the entire surface of the body. Individual and minor extensions can be seen on almost all parts of the body. Significant venous dilatations, which are the result of more serious disorders in the body, can be seen under the skin of the chest and abdomen, and on the legs.

More than twenty percent of people over the age of 30 have varicose veins on their legs. The number of such women is much higher than men. The disease is considered not only a medical but also a social problem. Varicose veins on the legs lose as many working hours as the flu. Varicose veins on the legs can be called a disease of civilization. They most commonly occur in civilized countries. This is the fault of the way of life of modern man. Restricted movement, lack of physical exercise, mostly standing work, all this interferes with the normal flow of venous blood to the heart. Movement allows normal blood circulation in the legs. When he moves the leg or when he just tenses the muscles in the legs, the man moves a certain amount of blood towards the heart and the blood pressure in the veins decreases. This is the so-called "muscle venous pump". In people who mostly stand in their work, the "muscle pump" is not used enough and a certain amount of blood is constantly left in the veins (sellers, waiters). There is blood stasis and an increase in venous pressure. The valves in the veins give way to pressure and return smaller amounts of blood, and then more and more, which causes the veins to dilate. Prolonged increase in venous pressure leads to increasing varicose veins. The veins gradually lengthen and become tortuous. If left untreated, elongated veins intertwine and form large nodules. Blood stasis extends back all the way to the capillaries. As a result, the pressure in the blood capillaries rises and less fresh blood enters them. The skin and subcutaneous tissue at that site receive less and less food and oxygen. The skin gradually becomes thinner, malnourished, only to end up as thin as parchment paper and colored brown. Eventually it becomes so thin that it disappears completely, so a wound is created in that place.

Varicose veins cause inflammation of the veins (phlebitis). Inflammation is always associated with blood clotting, thrombosis. A blood clot can partially or completely close a vein. Such a clot can be torn off, and the bloodstream can go to more distant parts of the body and cause a limited interruption of blood circulation in the tissue or organ (thromboembolism). They are a much rarer cause of congenital defects in the veins, especially on the valves, followed by poor development of connective tissue, which is mostly hereditary. Connective tissue is supportive, as are bones, only soft, and fills the spaces between organs, connects organs and tissues, and monitors blood vessels. And pregnancy can cause varicose veins due to increased pressure in the abdomen that is transmitted to the large veins of the abdominal cavity and due to general changes in the body during pregnancy. Varicose veins can be caused by tumors, scars, cysts because they press on the outside and impede blood flow.

Everyone sees and recognizes varicose veins at first sight. Sometimes they are slight extensions of only a few centimeters, but they can also be long, and meander like a drill or a snake, and extend from the feet to the upper part of the thigh. Minor extensions may not cause significant discomfort, but minor extensions can also cause leg pain and rapid fatigue. The pain intensifies at night, especially during menstruation. Slight swelling in the lower legs causes tension, tightness and heaviness in the legs. There is a feeling as if "ants are walking on their feet", a feeling of burning, stinging, tingling, itching. Occasionally there are strong and painful cramps in the leg muscles. Swelling, especially in the ankle area, occurs after a short and calm stand.

Today, there are numerous medications to treat varicose veins. In most cases, these are products of the pharmaceutical industry, but there are also folk remedies, some are taken, while others are placed directly on the part of the skin where the varicose veins are located. All medications that are taken are only additional means. By taking medication alone, varicose veins cannot be suppressed. There are only two procedures that can give lasting results, surgical removal of the diseased vein and treatment by injection directly into the diseased vein. Injection treatment is performed by injecting the medicine directly into a diseased vein in a lying patient. The vein is then bandaged with an elastic bandage that is worn for a few more weeks after the last injection. This procedure closes the vein and only a narrow strip of tissue remains, but not all veins can be sclerosed. Many doctors are not supporters of this method because a large percentage of veins dilate again. This procedure creates a blood clot (thrombus) in the vein, which gradually dissolves, dissolves and in a year or two a channel is created in the clot and the vein becomes passable again. The safest way to treat varicose veins is surgery. 1800 years ago, the Roman physician Galen plucked varicose veins with a blunt hook. Despite the fact that this method is very old, in many cases it is irreplaceable and still gives the best results. Some improvement in the onset of the disease can be achieved by short periods of rest with the legs raised. When sleeping, the legs should be raised at least ten centimeters. This procedure improves blood flow through veins that have been subjected to great strain due to prolonged standing or sitting.